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In addition, the changes that occur over time as biotic communities evolve or the artificial media of the reef change are often issues in assessing an artificial reef. More complex studies examine species accrual on new reef habitat and the interactions among species which develop over time, changing the species mix and eventually changing the ecosystem (Pamintuan et al. 1994; Fabi and Fiorentini 1994; Relini et al. 1994; Fabi et al. in press). Biological communities and populations on artificial reefs evolve over time, making the choice of when to sample a difficult but critically important decision.

Doty. 1994. ) associated with artificial reefs in Puget Sound, Washington. Bulletin of Marine Science 55(2–3):344–350. Yamane, T. 1989. Status and future plans of artificial reef projects in Japan. Bulletin of Marine Science 44(2):1038–1040. 9061/frame/ch01 Page 20 Wednesday, January 26, 2000 2:35 PM 9061/frame/ch02 Page 21 Thursday, February 3, 2000 9:24 AM CHAPTER 2 Study Design and Data Analysis Issues Kenneth M. Portier, Gianna Fabi, and Paul H. 1 SUMMARY Successful reef assessment studies have certain properties in common, such as clearly stated objectives, appropriate measurement techniques, adequate and effective sampling, and powerful statistical analysis.

Other names for this approach are purposeful selection, judgmental selection, and convenience selection. A sample selected by a chance mechanism is called a random selection. ” Statisticians, on the other hand, require the use of random selection since it provides assurance that the estimates obtained will have minimum systematic error, hence less bias (at least up to the bias of the measurement device) and, at the same time, allows determination of a measure of confidence in the estimate. Nonrandom selection often is used in situations where nature itself is assumed to be sufficiently random, deeming additional randomization to be redundant, or when the benefits in cost and convenience outweigh the known biases that result from the selection method (see Gauch 1982).

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Théorie des graphes et structures sociales by c. flament

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