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By Brian B. Schwartz, Sonia Frota-Pessôa (auth.), Doris Teplitz (eds.)

ISBN-10: 1475706502

ISBN-13: 9781475706505

ISBN-10: 1475706529

ISBN-13: 9781475706529

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D) Current and voltage leads are attached, giving the classical fourterminal probe system. The current and voltage response can be measured. Josephson in 1962, although he did not necessarily view the problem of phase transitions as stated above. We first give the solution to the measurement of phase in a superconductor and then discuss the historical and physical aspects of Josephson's solution. 1) where I J is the maximum current that could flow in the resistanceless state. I J depends upon the contact area between the superconductors and decreases exponentially with the separation distance between the two superconductors.

12) where Ko is a zero-order Hankel (modified Bessel) function. ~. For distances r >;\ the magnetic field decays exponentially as it should. For distances r<;\, the magnetic field decays slowly and logarithmically. This slow decay can be better understood in terms of the behavior of the current density. (r),j9(r) and the superconducting order parameter 'It(r) for a single Chapter 1 26 isolated vortex is given in Figure 7. r(r) is the positional dependent order parameter and measures the local strength of superconductivity.

The desired physical properties for practical large scale uses of superconductivity are: high critical temperature Tc ' high upper critical field B c2' high critical current density Jc ' and good mechanical properties. The commercially available superconducting materials divide into two groups: 1) ductile solid-solution alloys, such as those of niobium and titanium 2) intermetallic compounds, such as Nb3 Sn and V3 Ga, which are relatively brittle. At the present time, NbTi containing about 60 to 70 percent atomic titanium, is the most widely used ductile material for the construction of superconducting magnet windings.

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Electromagnetism: Paths to Research by Brian B. Schwartz, Sonia Frota-Pessôa (auth.), Doris Teplitz (eds.)

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