By Ron Hogervorst
Design of Low-Voltage, Low-Power CMOS Operational Amplifier Cells describes the speculation and layout of the circuit components which are required to gain a low-voltage, low-power operational amplifier. those parts comprise constant-gm rail-to-rail enter phases, class-AB rail-to-rail output levels and frequency repayment equipment. a number of examples of every of those circuit parts are investigated. additionally, the booklet illustrates a number of silicon realizations, giving their size effects.
The textual content makes a speciality of compact low-voltage low-power operational amplifiers with reliable functionality. Six uncomplicated high-performance class-AB amplifiers are learned utilizing a truly compact topology making them quite compatible to be used as VLSI library cells. all the designs can use a offer voltage as little as 3V. one of many amplifier designs dissipates simply 50µW with a harmony achieve frequency of 1.5 MHz. A moment set of amplifiers run on a provide voltage somewhat above 1V. The amplifiers mix a low energy intake with a achieve of one hundred twenty dB. moreover, the layout of 3 absolutely differential operational amplifiers is addressed.
Design of Low-Voltage, Low-Power CMOS Operational Amplifier Cells is meant for pro designers of analog circuits. it's also appropriate to be used as a textual content ebook for a complicated direction in CMOS operational amplifier design.
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Extra resources for Design of Low-Voltage, Low-Power Operational Amplifier Cells
24 Low- Voltage Low-Power CMOS Operational Amplifier Cells Single differential Input stege The second term represents the flicker noise component. The origin of this type of noise is not yet well understood . In most literature it is explained by random trapping of the charge carriers in the traps located at the Si-Si02 interface . Using equation 3-8, the total equivalent input voltage noise of the folded cascoded input stage can be calculated. It consists of two components, a thermal and a flicker noise component.
25 V. 28 Low-Voltage Low-Power CMOS OperationalAmplifier Cells Rall-to-rallinputstage In order to maintain the rail-to-rail capabilities of the input stage, the complementary input pairs have to be loaded with folded cascodes instead of current mirrors. As explained in the previous section , using current mirrors as a load will block a rail-to-rail operation of the input stage . Figure 3-6 shows an implementation of a rail-to-rail input stage M rM4 , loaded with a summing circuit. This summing circuit consists of folded cascodes , MfTMlO, which together with the low-voltage current mirror, Ms-Ms, add the signals coming from the input stage.
Suppose the amplifier should have a unity-gain frequency of at least oou,min over the total common -mode input range. Since the gm of the input stage is two times larger in the intermediate than in the outer parts of the common-mode input range, this indicates that for intermediate common-mode input voltages the unity-gain frequency is 2oou,min' From equation 3-22, it can be understood that the transconductance of the output transistor has to be two times larger than required in order to guarantee stability for each common -mode input level.
Design of Low-Voltage, Low-Power Operational Amplifier Cells by Ron Hogervorst