By Nuno Pereira
This ebook makes a speciality of the layout of a third Order CT-ΣΔM the place the integrator levels of the filter out are applied with Bipolar-Junction Transistors (BJT) differential pairs. those circuits are absolutely analyzed and the layout approach is punctiliously defined. The layout strategy is tested via experimental measurements of a number of prototype circuits.
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Extra info for Design and Implementation of Sigma Delta Modulators (ΣΔM) for Class D Audio Amplifiers using Differential Pairs
5-bit quantizers for single-ended architectures use two comparators, like in . For a fully differential architecture, a replica of this structure would result in the use of at least four comparators. Also, this architecture can pose a problem in terms of the common-mode output voltage of each comparator. In the interest of reducing the number of comparators used, and surpass the common-mode issue, the circuit in Fig. 8 was designed. The threshold voltage is generated through a voltage divider between the Vo voltages (Vop and Von ) and two reference voltages (here denoted as VR + and VR − ).
14. The STF of this structure is given by Eq. 20, while the NTF is given by Eq. 21. 6 Analysis of the ΣΔM Architecture 21 Fig. 15 Block diagram of a nth order ΣΔM with distributed feedback and distributed feedforward inputs While in the CIFF and CRFF structures only the error signal was fed into the loop filter, in the distributed feedback topology the entire output signal (including the input signal and the quantization noise) is fed back to every internal node of the filter. As in the CIFF structure (Sect.
1 and a representation of the state variation over time is shown in Fig. 9. As stated, this circuit is also capable of effectively rejecting the common-mode. This can be shown by Eq. 20, based on Eq. 16. 20) Dividing the right side of Eq. 5-bit ADC will be equal to the input common-mode voltage. 2 Original logic codification VC1 VC2 State IC1 IC2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 −1 0 1 1 0 +1 1 0 1 1 x x x Fig. 3 New logic codification IC1 IC2 Q SW1 SW2 SW3 SW4 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 x x x x 1 1 1 x x x x as shown in Fig.
Design and Implementation of Sigma Delta Modulators (ΣΔM) for Class D Audio Amplifiers using Differential Pairs by Nuno Pereira