By Renee Hirschon
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Additional resources for Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange between Greece and Turkey
Political manifestations of the period such as industrial action, general strikes, agitation and corporatism were perceived, in an exaggerated reaction, as signs of impending doom (Veremis 1982: 23-25). The national schism had resulted in a parliament dominated by the liberal camp, precluding a coalition of bourgeois political forces to face the crisis. By 1925 most liberal politicians were unwilling to take harsh economic measures since that would benefit the anti-Venizelist opposition and extraparliamentary right-wing forces.
41 (belonging; it was sufficient that they showed a 'patriotism' toward the empire. Otherwise they were free to declare themselves Arab, Kurd, Armenian, Greek, etc. This was the model under which the Ottoman government operated in the period leading up to the First World War. During the war itself, it was seen that patriotism along such lines was not an empty slogan: thousands of Greeks and Armenians volunteered to join the army and to defend the empire against their co-religionists. However, it must be pointed out that in the closing period of the empire the hold of the orihrinal religious communities on individuals was no longer as effective as it was supposed to be according to the blueprint.
Heper 1985) is not, I argue, in direct continuity with the Ottoman past. The Ottoman state-society relationship had changed and Turkey was now reverting to an earlier version. The transition from empire to the republic constituted a reversal in a development that would have culminated in a strong and independent bourgeoisie capable of economic activity and capital accumulation free from state involvement and interference. Compared with the late Ottoman state, the republican state was much less accountable, and therefore more autocratic and arbitrary.
Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange between Greece and Turkey by Renee Hirschon