's Cottage Life (May 2013) PDF

Benefit from the lake year-round with Cottage existence. In each one factor you’ll find:
Answers on your cottage questions
Ideas in your cottage layout or redesign
Delicious cottage recipes for you and your guests
Stories of alternative attention-grabbing cottagers

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24 Low- Voltage Low-Power CMOS Operational Amplifier Cells Single differential Input stege The second term represents the flicker noise component. The origin of this type of noise is not yet well understood . In most literature it is explained by random trapping of the charge carriers in the traps located at the Si-Si02 interface [6]. Using equation 3-8, the total equivalent input voltage noise of the folded cascoded input stage can be calculated. It consists of two components, a thermal and a flicker noise component.

25 V. 28 Low-Voltage Low-Power CMOS OperationalAmplifier Cells Rall-to-rallinputstage In order to maintain the rail-to-rail capabilities of the input stage, the complementary input pairs have to be loaded with folded cascodes instead of current mirrors. As explained in the previous section , using current mirrors as a load will block a rail-to-rail operation of the input stage . Figure 3-6 shows an implementation of a rail-to-rail input stage M rM4 , loaded with a summing circuit. This summing circuit consists of folded cascodes , MfTMlO, which together with the low-voltage current mirror, Ms-Ms, add the signals coming from the input stage.

Suppose the amplifier should have a unity-gain frequency of at least oou,min over the total common -mode input range. Since the gm of the input stage is two times larger in the intermediate than in the outer parts of the common-mode input range, this indicates that for intermediate common-mode input voltages the unity-gain frequency is 2oou,min' From equation 3-22, it can be understood that the transconductance of the output transistor has to be two times larger than required in order to guarantee stability for each common -mode input level.

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Cottage Life (May 2013)


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