By Mary D. Archer, Robert Hill
Photovoltaic cells supply fresh, reversible electrical energy from the sunlight. made up of semiconductors, they're sturdy, silent in operation and freed from polluting emissions. during this booklet, specialists from all sectors of the PV group - fabrics scientists, physicists, construction engineers, economists and environmentalists - provide their severe value determinations of the place the know-how is now and what its customers are.
Two pattern chapters - (a) Crystalline Silicon sunlight Cells and (b) Photovoltaic Modules, structures and purposes are actually to be had on-line.
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Extra resources for Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics
11c) are junctions formed between two chemically different semiconductors with different band gaps. The larger band-gap material is often denoted by writing its conductivity type as upper-case N or P, and the smaller band-gap material by a lower-case letter. In the frontwall configuration, the top layer is the main lightabsorbing layer, and light enters through its front surface. In the backwall configuration, the top layer is an optical window material of wide band gap through which light passes to enter the light-absorbing base layer at the junction.
2 Evolution of efficiency of amorphous silicon modules. Source: Kazmerski (2000). One of the problems with thin-film materials other than a-Si:H is that they are not used elsewhere in the electronics industry so there is little accumulated expertise about them. Nevertheless, two other thin-film materials, cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2, also referred to as CIS) are currently offering real competition to amorphous silicon in the PV field. CdTe was familiar to the semiconductor industry from its use, in very pure crystalline form, as a photoconductive y-ray detector.
Regardless of the exact form of the diode equation, all PV cells behave as rectifiers in the dark, showing highly non-linear current-voltage characteristics similar to that labelled 'dark' in Fig. 10. Junctions must show rectifying properties in the dark if they are to show photovoltaic properties in the light. 10 Forward biasing a junction means applying a voltage across the device that lowers the band-bending barrier. Reverse biasing means applying a voltage in the opposite direction. () M. D.
Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics by Mary D. Archer, Robert Hill