By Bin Liang, Hong Lu, Terance D. Miethe
Within the context of world efforts to manage the creation, distribution, and use of narcotic medicines, China's therapy of the matter presents a tremendous technique of knowing the social, political, and monetary limits of nationwide and foreign regulations to manage drug practices. within the 19th and early 20th centuries, China used to be recognized for its nationwide dependancy to opium, yet its drug-eradication campaigns from the Nineteen Fifties to the Seventies accomplished exceptional luck that eventually remodeled China right into a 'drug-free' society. because the fiscal reforms and open-door coverage of the overdue 20th century, despite the fact that, China is now dealing with a re-emergence of the construction, use, and trafficking of narcotic medicines. utilising case reviews and a comparative historic procedure, and drawing on various facts resources together with historic files, respectable crime info only in the near past made to be had, and information stories, this ebook is the 1st English-language ebook to supply this kind of accomplished documentation and research of the character of China's criminal rules of managed components. The authors additionally supply theoretical methods for learning drug legislation, features of drug intake cultures, the socio-political therapy of gear in the course of a number of ancient classes, and ongoing efforts to legislate drug exchange, criminalize drug use, and deal with the drug addict inhabitants inside of nationwide and foreign contexts.
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Additional info for China's Drug Practices and Policies: Regulating Controlled Substances in a Global Context
Nevertheless, behind the official public policy, private individuals, local organizations, and even the central government profited from trade, particularly the enormous profits from the opium trade (Wakeman 1978, 163–212). 10 T he Qing government’s defeat in these wars resulted in the following activities: • • • • • the emergence of a treaty system that led to the dramatic increase in the number of treaty ports from five in 1842 to 50 in 1911; the expansion of foreign extra-territorial consular jurisdictional rights over treaty-power nationals, their property, trade, and industry, along with foreign shipping privileges in Chinese waters; the employment of foreign administrators in various important posts such as customs, post office, and salt revenue administrations; the expansion of missionary work; the opening of Western schools, hospitals, and churches (Fairbank 1978a, 3–4).
T his period of foreign invasion, exploitation, and aggression during the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century has been collectively labeled as Western Imperialism. 11 10 T he O pium War fought between the Qing government of China and G reat Britain between 1839 and 1842 represents a “watershed event” in modern Chinese history (Xiao 2002, 42). Depending on the political and cultural perspectives, this war has been portrayed differently. For example, many popular and scholarly works in the Republic Era (1911–1949) and the early People’s Republic of China (1949–1978) portrayed the war as caused by Western aggression and imperialism (Hu 1953; Yang 1981).
Most provinces were involved with opium cultivation and annual output yielded 2-4 times more than that was imported by 1880. Domestic cultivation of opium was rare in the T ang and S ong dynasties when opium was initially brought into China. E ven in the early Qing dynasty, when opium smoking became a concern in the Qing court, the royal edicts only banned 32 T wo reasons may account for the popularity of opium in the E ast. O ne was religion. While Islam frowned upon alcohol, it tolerated opium.
China's Drug Practices and Policies: Regulating Controlled Substances in a Global Context by Bin Liang, Hong Lu, Terance D. Miethe