Download e-book for iPad: Biofuels from Algae by Ashok Pandey, Duu-Jong Lee, Yusuf Chisti, Carlos R. Soccol

By Ashok Pandey, Duu-Jong Lee, Yusuf Chisti, Carlos R. Soccol

ISBN-10: 0444595589

ISBN-13: 9780444595584

This ebook offers in-depth details on simple and utilized points of biofuels construction from algae. It starts off with an advent to the subject, and follows with the fundamental clinical features of algal cultivation and its use for biofuels creation, akin to picture bioreactor engineering for microalgae creation, open tradition platforms for biomass construction and the economics of biomass construction. It presents cutting-edge info on artificial biology methods for algae compatible for biofuels creation, by means of algal biomass harvesting, algal oils as fuels, biohydrogen construction from algae, formation/production of co-products, and extra. The booklet additionally covers subject matters resembling metabolic engineering and molecular biology for algae for gas construction, existence cycle overview and scale-up and commercialization. it truly is hugely precious and allows you to plan new learn and layout new economically doable procedures for the construction of fresh fuels from algae.

  • Covers in a entire yet concise method many of the algae biomass conversion applied sciences at present available
  • Lists the entire items made out of algae, i.e. biohydrogen, gasoline oils, etc., their homes and power uses
  • Includes the economics of a few of the approaches and the mandatory steps for scaling them up

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The release of nutrients from dead cells or the supply of nutrients initiates a new cycle (Henrikson, 1994). There are many controversies in the morphology and taxonomy of cyanobacteria of the genera Spirulina and Arthospira. Many studies have described the properties of Spirulina maxima and Spirulina platensis, and both species are considered to be of the genus Arthospira and not Spirulina. , 2000). The helical shape is only maintained in liquid medium; in solid medium the filaments take a spiral shape, and the transition from the helical shape to the spiral shape is slow, whereas the opposite takes place instantaneously.

2010). , 2008). 5 Flotation Flotation is a separation process in which air or gas bubbles are directed at the solid particles and then drive these particles to the liquid surface. Flotation is more beneficial and efficient for removing cells than sedimentation. , 2011). According to the bubble size used in the process, the application can be divided into dissolved air flotation and dispersed flotation. In dissolved air flotation, the application of reduced pressure produces bubbles of 10–100 μm.

In the case of cultivation with addition of CO2, the concentration of this gas may be the dominant factor that will determine the pH of the culture. , 2012). SOx and NOx, present in flue gas from burning coal, can also cause changes in pH, damaging microalgal cultivation. , 2010). The pH also influences the removal of ammonia and phosphorus. The high pH may increase the removal of ammonia through its volatilization and phosphorus through its precipitation (Craggs, 2005). 11 Sterility of Cultivation Microalgal cultures are susceptible to contamination by different species of microalgae, bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and rotifers.

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Biofuels from Algae by Ashok Pandey, Duu-Jong Lee, Yusuf Chisti, Carlos R. Soccol

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