By Worldwatch Institute
The realm is at the verge of an remarkable raise within the creation and use of biofuels for shipping. the mix of emerging oil costs, problems with safeguard, weather instability and pollutants, deepening poverty in rural and agricultural components, and a number of greater applied sciences, is propelling governments to enact strong incentives for using those fuels, that is in flip sparking funding. Biofuels for shipping is a different and accomplished evaluation of the possibilities and dangers of the large-scale construction of biofuels. The booklet demystifies complicated questions and matters, comparable to the ?food v. gasoline? debate. international in scope, it truly is extra expert via 5 nation reviews from Brazil, China, Germany, India and Tanzania. The authors finish that biofuels will play an important position in our power destiny, yet warn that the large-scale use of biofuels includes dangers that require targeted and rapid coverage tasks. released in organization with BMELV, FNR and GTZ.
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Extra info for Biofuels for Transport: Global Potential and Implications for Sustainable Energy and Agriculture
7 Somewhat smaller sugar producers, such as Colombia, Cuba, the Philippines and Swaziland, may begin to produce for domestic and regional markets if there is a near-term increase in ethanol demand; indeed, most of these countries are already in the process of forming signiﬁcant biofuel programmes. 10 Brazil’s centre-south region contains the vast cerrado prairies, perhaps the largest land area in the world available for increasing agricultural acreage, and a region capable of growing highly productive sugar cane varieties.
6 per cent by transport distance travelled. 5 HISTORY OF BIOFUEL PRODUCTION PROGRAMMES Biofuels have been used in automobiles since the early days of motorized transport. American inventor Samuel Morey used ethanol and turpentine in the ﬁrst internal combustion engines as early as the 1820s. 1 World fuel ethanol production, 1975–2006 Source: F. O. 2 World biodiesel production, 1991–2006 Source: F. O. Licht CURRENT STATUS OF THE BIOFUEL INDUSTRY AND MARKETS 5 his ﬁrst spark-ignition engines on ethanol, and Rudolph Diesel used peanut oil in his prototype compression-ignition engines.
However, fuel quality standards have been deﬁned for pure rapeseed oil in Europe, and there has been some experience with the use and handling of the fuel in daily operation. 15 Biodiesel Compared to SVO, biodiesel is a more blendable form of lipid-based biofuel. Biodiesel is made by chemically combining the oil with an alcohol (such as methanol or ethanol) in a process known as transesteriﬁcation. 17 The catalyst is usually an acid or a base; but bases such as NaOH and KOH are the most common, in part because, with them, transesteriﬁcation can happen at a lower temperature.
Biofuels for Transport: Global Potential and Implications for Sustainable Energy and Agriculture by Worldwatch Institute