By Steve Potter
Immediate revision notes for AS, with self-check questions and grade-boosting tutorials in a convenient A5-sized ebook. Written by way of a senior examiner and skilled instructor who is aware what scholars desire for that ultimate -- quick -- check!Ready made revision notes conceal the total of the AS path and lower on revision time. Self money questions at each level be certain revision is lively and potent. Grade-boosting tutorials from the examiner offer professional recommendation on easy methods to resolution examination questions and what pitfalls to prevent.
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U A C A A U U A C G U G 33 G ENETIC E NGINEERING (1) [AQA A, AQA B, OCR and WJEC only] Genetic engineering describes the range of techniques used to manipulate DNA. It includes the transfer of genes from one species to another, to produce transgenic organisms. For example, bacteria can be engineered to produce a useful product. g. GAATTC. Each time the sequence occurs, it cuts the DNA. If it occurs 5 times, there will be 5 cuts making 6 DNA fragments An enzyme that joins DNA sections Something that transfers a gene from one cell to another, usually a bacterial plasmid or a virus A small circular piece of DNA found in bacteria; it is not part of the main bacterial DNA Non-parallel ends of a DNA molecule formed when a restriction enzyme cuts the DNA.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [AQA A and AQA B only] This is a technique in which a sample of DNA is replicated without the need to clone it in a living organism. It is carried out in a PCR machine. 1 The PCR machine is loaded with: the DNA to be replicated; DNA nucleotides (the ‘building blocks’ for the new DNA); DNA primers (short sections of DNA to initiate replication); a thermostable DNA polymerase that allows continuous production despite the changes in temperature. 2 The PCR is heated to 95ºC to separate the strands of DNA.
The enzyme DNA .............. breaks .............. bonds to part the strands. DNA .............. then makes a new .............. strand for each using DNA .............. It positions these according to the .............. rule. This always pairs A with T and C with G. (9) 5 Look at the diagram of transcription. Name A, B, C and the bond forming at D. (4) Amino acid 4 D Am acidino 1 B A C G C G Amino acid 3 Amino acid 2 U A U G U A C C C G G G C The answers are on page 108. U A C A A U U A C G U G 33 G ENETIC E NGINEERING (1) [AQA A, AQA B, OCR and WJEC only] Genetic engineering describes the range of techniques used to manipulate DNA.
AS Biology (Instant Revision) by Steve Potter