New PDF release: Anaphora and Definite Descriptions: Two Applications of

By Jaakko Hintikka

ISBN-10: 9027720568

ISBN-13: 9789027720566

ISBN-10: 9400954107

ISBN-13: 9789400954106

I n order to understand appropriately what we're doing during this ebook it is important to achieve that our method of linguistic theorizing differs from the present perspectives. Our strategy may be defined by way of indicating what distinguishes it from the methodological principles present in theoretical linguistics, which I ponder heavily erroneous. Linguists in most cases construe their job at present as that of creating exceptionless generalizations from specific examples. This explanatory technique is inaccurate in numerous other ways. It presupposes that we will be able to have "intuitions" approximately specific examples, often examples invented via the linguist himself or herself, trustworthy and sharp adequate to function a foundation of sharp generalizations. It additionally presupposes that we can't have both trustworthy direct entry to basic linguistic regularities. either assumptions seem to me super doubtful, and the 1st of them has in impression been challenged via linguists like Dwight Bol inger. there's additionally a few proof that the measure of unanimity between linguists is reasonably low by way of much less transparent circumstances, even in reference to such really uncomplicated questions as grammaticality (acceptability). for that reason we've got attempted to count extra on quotations from modern fiction, newspapers and magazines than on linguists' and philosophers' advert hoc examples. I additionally locate it unusual that a number of the related linguists as think that all of us own innate rules approximately basic features of humanly attainable grammars imagine that we will have entry to them purely through their specific consequences.

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Extra resources for Anaphora and Definite Descriptions: Two Applications of Game-Theoretical Semantics

Example text

The output sentence of this rule is clearly parallel to (11) . Hence (G. Russellian the) is essentially the game-theoretical codification of Russell's treatment of definite descriptions applied to English. 2. Prima Facie Difficulties with Russell's Theory There are nevertheless advantages in dealing with Russell's theory by means of a game-theoretical formulation, instead of the usual strategy of first translating English sentences into the formal quantificational idiom. For instance, there is now no problem about the Bach-Peters (crossing pronominalization) sentences (see Hintikka and Saarinen, 1975) .

There are natural-language uses of the-phrases where even Russell Is notation proves inadequate. , sentences with crossing anaphoric relations,2 such as the following: (9) The boy who was fooling her kissed the girl who loved him. This sentence cannot be translated into Russellis iota-notation, for reasons closely related to those that have made it hard for syntacticians to generate it by means of a natural pronominalization rule. The reason for this difficulty is clear: If you try to find a formal translation of the the-phrase lithe boy who was fooling her", the formal definite description (say ()x)A[x]) serving as a translation will have to contain as a part the translation of lithe girl who loved him", because of the presence of the pronoun "her" in the former the-phrase.

The game is then continued with respect to (11) D [b] & C [b] & "'D [d] • If band d do not already have proper names, such names, say "b" and lid II , are given to them and added to the underlying language. I f the domain D = {bl. Nature's choice is impossible and the game is continued with respect to (12) D[b] & C[b]. Since Myself's choices correspond to existential quantifiers and Nature's choices to universal quantifiers, this rule makes (10) equivalent to (13) (Ex) (D[x] & C[x] & (Ay)(y:tx + "'D[y])) which is equivalent to (2).

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Anaphora and Definite Descriptions: Two Applications of Game-Theoretical Semantics by Jaakko Hintikka


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