By Richard Folkson
Эта серьёзная книга посвящена альтернативным видам топлива и технологическим решениям в устройстве автомобилей для снижения негативного влияния на окружающую среду.
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Extra info for Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance: Towards Zero Carbon Transportation
The role of alternative and renewable liquid fuels 27 ethanol in terms of energy supply as an alternative road transport fuel. 7% of total road transport fuel consumption (IEA, 2010). The European Union (EU) dominated the production of biodiesel in 2009 with 54% of production, followed by the USA and Brazil with 13% and 9%, respectively (IEA, 2010). About 75% of EU biodiesel is made from rape seed feed stock, with 13% coming from soy bean, and 8% from palm oil (Haer, 2011). China and India produced 2% and 1% of the world’s biodiesel, respectively.
A national M85 standard (ASTM D5797 – covering mixtures containing between 70% and 85% methanol in gasoline) was put in place. Political factors, combined with a drop in the oil price and a methanol shortage brought about by the sale of methanol stocks to make methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) for use as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline, required by the Clean Air Act The role of alternative and renewable liquid fuels 29 Amendments (EPA, 2012), led to the reduction of interest in methanol in the late 1990s and the rise of bioethanol production.
For EREVs the strategy is often to try to size the battery so that a large portion of the distance travelled by the vehicle can be done in EV mode. It is clear that, for a range-equivalent vehicle, the cost of the battery makes the BEV unaffordable to most customers. 2 Cost comparison of alternative energy vehicles. Assumed vehicle range (unless stated) = 550 km; battery cost = $750/kWh. than a conventional vehicle with a much higher utility level. This presents the customer with a very large negative price-performance differential.
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance: Towards Zero Carbon Transportation by Richard Folkson