By Rene Hubner
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Additional info for Advanced Ta-Based Diffusion Barriers for Cu Interconnects
To avoid the impact of a special ambience, all heat treatments were carried out under vacuum conditions with a residual gas pressure of p0 ≈ 10-4 Pa. Two different approaches were applied. Firstly, samples were annealed at several temperatures for a fixed time of t = 1 h which allows for the determination of the critical temperatures for particular degradation processes. g. T = 600 °C) and varying annealing time (t = 1 ... 100 h) to analyze diffusion processes in more detail. It should be mentioned that for each annealing experiments, a dedicated sample was used.
Besides the determination of the degree of crystallinity, XRD investigations are suitable to analyze phase composition, lattice parameters for each crystalline phase, crystallite size, texture, and lattice strains. 5418 Å) and a Philips X’Pert Pro diffractometer equipped with X-ray mirror, Eulerian cradle, collimator, and graphite monochromator. 1 mm wide slit was placed between the collimator and the graphite monochromator to enhance the angular resolution in 2θ. 125 mm thick Ni foil was automatically introduced into the primary beam to attenuate intensities higher than a critical level.
As shown by Giber et al. , the dissolution of a 100 nm thick Ta2O5 layer on polycrystalline tantalum can already occur during annealing at T > 400 °C in ultrahigh vacuum. Due to reduced O supply, a smaller increase of the compressive stress during annealing is expected for Ta layers capped with copper. On the one hand, the Cu film is deposited without interrupting the vacuum which avoids the formation of native Ta oxide. On the other hand, the Cu cap layer reduces the intensity of O diffusion from the annealing ambience into the Ta barrier.
Advanced Ta-Based Diffusion Barriers for Cu Interconnects by Rene Hubner