Download e-book for iPad: A Source Book in Physics by William Francis Magie

By William Francis Magie

ISBN-10: 0674823656

ISBN-13: 9780674823655

This is often the reprint of a widely known and precious paintings that has been out of print and generally searched for a few years. A quantity within the sequence of Source Books within the background of the Sciences, it contains decisions from the writings of the good physicists from the sixteenth in the course of the nineteenth century--such figures as Galileo and Newton, Franklin and Faraday, Rowland, Hertz, and the Curies--making to be had to the scholar in English translation their most crucial contributions, defined of their personal phrases, including biographical and explanatory notes through the editor.

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Thus the octave and the fifth have no “common measure” and the Pythagorean attempt to divide the octave into natural steps using rational numbers was doomed from the start—though the Pythagoreans may never have noticed. If one wants a scale with the sweetest harmonies, given by the octave and the fifth, then it is impossible to include both by dividing the octave into equal steps. 7. Equal Temperament 21 is close to seven octaves. 1) the difference between 12 fifths and seven octaves is a noticeable fraction of a step, so some compromise is necessary.

2. 4), though they would no doubt have balked at setting a = 0 to get (−b)2 = b 2 . (The initial figure is a square of side a plus a square of side b at its bottom left, hence its area is a 2 + b 2 . 2 Imaginary Numbers From our experience thus far, numbers with negative squares seem completely uncalled for. Why not just say, as we did in the previous section, that no real number has a negative square and leave it at that? If someone asks us to solve the equation x 2 = −1, we are perfectly entitled to say that there is no solution.

It suggests that parallels control the behavior of angles and, presumably, the behavior of lengths and areas as well. This is indeed the case. Here are just a few of the consequences of the parallel axiom that may be found in the Elements : • Rectangles exist. • The Pythagorean theorem. • The angles of any triangle sum to two right angles.

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A Source Book in Physics by William Francis Magie

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