A heritage of chinese language technological know-how and expertise (Volumes 1, 2 & three) provides forty four person lectures, starting with historic chinese language technological know-how and expertise within the means of Human Civilizations and an summary of chinese language technology and know-how, and carrying on with with in-depth discussions of a number of matters within the heritage of technology and the Needham Puzzle, interspersed with subject matters on Astronomy, mathematics, Agriculture and medication, The 4 nice innovations, and numerous technological parts heavily concerning garments, nutrients, take care of and transportation.
This booklet is the main authoritative paintings at the background of chinese language technology and expertise. it's the Winner of the China e-book Award, the Shanghai publication Award (1st prize), and the Classical China overseas Publishing undertaking (GAPP, common management of Press and booklet of China) and provides an important source for educational researchers and non-experts alike.
It originated with a sequence of forty four lectures awarded to best chinese language leaders, which obtained very confident suggestions. Written by means of most sensible chinese language students of their respective fields from the Institute for the heritage of typical Sciences, chinese language Academy of Sciences and plenty of different revered chinese language agencies, the ebook is meant for scientists, researchers and postgraduate scholars operating within the heritage of technological know-how, philosophy of technology and expertise, and comparable disciplines. Yongxiang Lu is a professor, former president and member of the chinese language Academy of Sciences (CAS) and chinese language Academy of Engineering (CAE), and vice president of the nationwide Congress of China.
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Extra resources for A History of Chinese Science and Technology, Volume 1
100,000. These included 40 joint Sinoforeign firms which for all practical purposes were under foreign control. $io3,ij3,ooo, and some of their characteristics are shown in table 11. While the establishment of the English, French, German and Russian firms was fairly evenly distributed over the two decades, all but two of the Japanese enterprises were begun in 1904 and later - evidence of Japan's increasing economic penetration of Manchuria after the Russo-Japanese War. Coal mining was the biggest field of investment, and Britain the largest investor.
7 But the gap between stability and stagnation is narrow. The equilibrium of traditional agriculture had been reached at a very low level of per capita output of which a very high proportion was consumed by the agricultural producers. Only a small quantity of marketable surplus was available either as industrial raw material or to feed the non-farm sector. Conversely, the effective demand for urban manufactured products was limited. Thus the immediate possibilities either of extensive industrialization or of agricultural development were narrowly constrained by the disabilities of the agricultural sector.
But only in the leading cotton-producing areas had the handicraft production of cotton textiles developed into a major industry serving other than an immediate local market. From the weaving districts in southern Hupei, for example, cloth was brought by peasant weavers or petty merchants to the daily piece-goods market in Shasi. The wholesale merchants who purchased in this market graded the cloth by quality and stamped each grade with a well-known 'chop' (trademark) which was accepted as a guarantee of quality in the markets of Yunnan and Kweichow to which the goods were sent.
A History of Chinese Science and Technology, Volume 1